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Kathryn Lee, MPH1; Lindsay Trujillo, MPH2; Evelyn Olansky, MPH2; Taylor Robbins, MPH1; Christine Agnew Brune, PhD1; Elana Morris, MPH1; Teresa Finlayson, PhD1; Dafna Kanny, PhD1; Cyprian Wejnert, PhD1; National HIV Behavioral Surveillance among Transgender Women Study Group (View author affiliations)

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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV.

What is added by this report?

During 2019–2020, 38% of transgender women surveyed in seven major U.S. cities reported receiving a previous positive HIV test result. Low income (44%), experiencing homelessness (39%), and severe food insecurity (40%) were common and associated with lower likelihood of receipt of HIV prevention and health care; having a health care provider with whom the participant is comfortable was positively associated with receiving those services.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Ensuring access to basic needs, such as housing, food, and income, and providing gender-affirming health care could improve access to and use of HIV prevention and treatment services by transgender women.

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Transgender women* are disproportionately affected by HIV. Among 1,608 transgender women who participated in CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) during 2019–2020, 42% received a positive HIV test result (1). This report provides results from seven U.S. urban areas where the 2019–2020 NHBS questionnaire was administered. Thirty-eight percent of participants reported having previously received a positive test result for HIV. Detrimental socioeconomic factors, including low income (44%), homelessness (39%), and severe food insecurity in the past 12 months (40%), were common and associated with lower receipt of HIV prevention and treatment services. Having a usual health care source or a provider with whom the participant was comfortable discussing gender-related health issues was associated with improved HIV prevention and treatment outcomes, including HIV testing, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, and viral suppression. These findings illustrate the benefit of gender-affirming approaches used by health care providers (2), and highlight the challenging socioeconomic conditions faced by many transgender women. Ensuring access to gender-affirming health care approaches and addressing the socioeconomic challenges of many transgender women could improve access to and use of HIV prevention and care in this population and will help achieve the goals of the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States initiative (3).

Initiated in 2003, NHBS conducts biobehavioral surveillance among persons at high risk for HIV infection. During June 2019–February 2020, NHBS surveyed 1,608 transgender women in seven U.S. urban areas using respondent-driven sampling. Eligible participants§ completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and were offered an HIV test. The questionnaire included measures of gender identity, income, health insurance, housing,** food insecurity,†† HIV status, viral suppression (if HIV-positive), comfort with their health care provider in discussing gender-related health issues (hereafter referred to as comfort with a provider), unmet need for health care,§§ and usual source of health care. Because of racial and ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence, recruitment was focused on Black or African American and Hispanic or Latina transgender women as initial sampling recruits. Incentives were provided for completion of the interview and HIV test. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% CIs for prevention and treatment outcomes, by self-reported HIV status, were estimated using log-linked Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations clustered on recruitment chain and urban area; models were adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, and urban area. Analyses were conducted using SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute). This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.¶¶

Data from 1,608 transgender women were included in this analysis (Table 1). Thirty-eight percent reported having previously received a positive HIV test result.*** Forty-four percent earned <$10,000 annually. During the past 12 months 39% experienced homelessness, and 40% experienced severe food insecurity. Nearly one third (31%) of participants were interviewed in Los Angeles. By urban area, reports of homelessness ranged from 22% to 59%, and reports of recent severe food insecurity ranged from 28% to 47%. Comfort with a provider varied by urban area from 66% to 91%.

Socioeconomic status and health care accessibility were associated with health outcomes (Table 2). Among participants who reported a previous positive test result for HIV, self-reported viral suppression was less common among participants who reported experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months (aPR = 0.88; p = 0.003), and the likelihood of viral suppression decreased as the number of nights of homelessness increased. Severe food insecurity (aPR = 0.84; p<0.001) and unmet need for health care (aPR = 0.89; p = 0.027) were also less common among participants who reported viral suppression. Comfort with a provider (aPR = 1.17; p = 0.007) was more common among participants who reported viral suppression. Similar associations were found for current use of antiretroviral medication. Having a usual source of health care was also associated with current use of antiretroviral medication (aPR = 1.16; p = 0.015).

Among participants who did not report a previous positive test result for HIV, testing for HIV during the past 12 months was more likely among those who reported having a usual source of health care (aPR = 1.16; p<0.001) and comfort with a provider (aPR = 1.12; p = 0.004) (Table 3). PrEP use was more common among participants who reported having health insurance (aPR = 1.54; p<0.001), a usual source of health care (aPR = 2.54; p<0.001), and comfort with a provider (aPR = 1.79; p<0.001), and less likely among participants who reported an unmet need for health care (aPR = 0.82; p = 0.050). PrEP use was also more common among participants who had experienced severe food insecurity than those who had not (aPR = 1.23; p = 0.024).

Discussion

Experiencing homelessness, poverty, and food insecurity was common among transgender women and might result from the pervasive experience of stigma and discrimination, which reduce access to education, employment, and health care (4). These structural factors are associated with lower likelihood of viral suppression among transgender women with HIV infection. When a person experiences challenges securing food or housing, prioritization of HIV treatment might be interrupted (5). Facilitating transgender women’s access to interventions that address socioeconomic conditions, such as the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) program,††† could help ensure that basic needs are met and improve the health of persons with HIV in this population.

Despite existence of need-based programs like the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program§§§ and Ready, Set, PrEP,¶¶¶ results indicate that participants without health insurance or with an unmet need for health care were less likely to achieve viral suppression or report PrEP use. Evaluation of these and similar programs might help identify barriers to participation that need to be addressed to ensure that persons in need are aware of and accessing these programs.

Having a usual source of health care and comfort with a provider were associated with a higher likelihood of viral suppression, HIV testing, and PrEP use, all of which play key roles in HIV prevention. Comfort with a provider can help alleviate the stigma and discrimination that often deter transgender persons from seeking care (6). Perceived interactions with hormones, concerns about side effects, medical mistrust, competing priorities, and the belief that PrEP is specifically for gay men are all documented barriers to PrEP use among transgender persons (7). A gender-affirming provider can help transgender women overcome barriers to PrEP use.

The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, the results are not representative of all transgender women residing outside the seven urban areas. Second, the data are self-reported and are subject to recall and social desirability biases. Third, the findings reported here are associations, and causality cannot be inferred. Finally, gender-affirming health care is a complex, multifaceted construct (8), and is not fully described by the measure of comfort with a provider when discussing gender-related health issues that was used in this analysis.

Early detection of HIV, appropriate treatment, and proven prevention interventions are effective tools in the fight against HIV and are key strategies for ending the HIV epidemic (3). The findings in this report highlight an additional need for health care providers and other public health officials to ensure appropriate levels of cultural competency when providing services for transgender persons. Providers can use CDC’s Patient-Centered Care for Transgender People: Recommended Practices for Health Care Settings**** as a starting point for understanding how to provide affirming services. Although access to health insurance and gender-affirming health care is critical to connecting transgender women to HIV prevention and care services; access to food, housing, and income are also essential.

National HIV Behavioral Surveillance among Transgender Women Study Group

Narquis Barak, CrescentCare; Kathleen A. Brady, Philadelphia Department of Public Health; Sarah Braunstein, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; Jasmine Davis, CrescentCare; Sara Glick, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Public Health – Seattle & King County, HIV/STD Program; Andrea Harrington, Philadelphia Department of Public Health; Jasmine Lopez, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; Yingbo Ma, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health; Aleks Martin, Public Health – Seattle & King County, HIV/STD Program; Genetha Mustaafaa, Georgia Department of Public Health; Tanner Nassau, Philadelphia Department of Public Health; Gia Olaes, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health; Jennifer Reuer, Washington State Department of Health; Alexis Rivera, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; William T. Robinson, Louisiana State University Health Science Center in New Orleans – School of Public Health, Louisiana Office of Public Health STD/HIV/Hepatitis Program; Ekow Kwa Sey, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health; Sofia Sicro, San Francisco Department of Public Health; Brittany Taylor, Georgia Department of Public Health; Dillon Trujillo, San Francisco Department of Public Health; Erin Wilson, San Francisco Department of Public Health; Pascale Wortley, Georgia Department of Public Health.


References

  1. CDC. HIV infection, risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among transgender women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 7 U.S. cities, 2019–2020. HIV surveillance special report no. 27. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/reports/hiv-surveillance.html
  2. Carter JW Jr, Salabarría-Peña Y, Fields EL, Robinson WT. Evaluating for health equity among a cluster of health departments implementing PrEP services. Eval Program Plann 2021;101981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2021.101981external icon PMID:34392968external icon
  3. Fauci AS, Redfield RR, Sigounas G, Weahkee MD, Giroir BP. End the HIV epidemic: a plan for the United States. JAMA 2019;321:844–5. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.1343external icon PMID:30730529external icon
  4. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Harrison J, Herman JL, Keisling M. Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force; 2011. https://transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/NTDS_Report.pdfpdf icon
  5. Hotton AL, Perloff J, Paul J, et al. Patterns of exposure to socio-structural stressors and HIV care engagement among transgender women of color. AIDS Behav 2020;24:3155–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02874-6external icon PMID:32335760external icon
  6. Lacombe-Duncan A, Kia H, Logie CH, et al. A qualitative exploration of barriers to HIV prevention, treatment and support: perspectives of transgender women and service providers. Health Soc Care Community 2021;29:e33–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13234external icon PMID:33237600external icon
  7. Cahill SR, Keatley J, Wade Taylor S, et al. “Some of us, we don’t know where we’re going to be tomorrow.” Contextual factors affecting PrEP use and adherence among a diverse sample of transgender women in San Francisco. AIDS Care 2020;32:585–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2019.1659912external icon PMID:31482726external icon
  8. CDC. Patient-centered care for transgender people: recommended practices for health care settings. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2022. Accessed January 21, 2022. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/clinicians/transforming-health/health-care-providers/affirmative-care.html

TABLE 1. Structural and health care factors among transgender women (N = 1,608)* — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, seven U.S. urban areas, 2019–2020
Characteristic No. (%)
Transgender women Severe food insecurity § Nights homeless Has usual source of care Comfort with a health care provider when discussing gender-related issues
365 30–364 <30 None
Age group, yrs
18–29 496 (30.9) 244 (49.2) 49 (9.9) 135 (27.2) 57 (11.7) 247 (49.8) 374 (75.4) 357 (72.0)
30–39 461 (28.7) 186 (40.4) 48 (10.4) 105 (22.8) 44 (9.5) 258 (56.0) 372 (80.7) 344 (74.6)
40–49 307 (19.1) 113 (36.8) 23 (7.5) 57 (18.8) 23 (7.5) 192 (62.5) 270 (88.0) 254 (82.7)
≥50 343 (21.3) 94 (27.4) 32 (9.3) 41 (12.0) 15 (4.4) 238 (69.4) 308 (89.8) 295 (86.0)
Race and ethnicity**
Black, non-Hispanic 569 (35.4) 221 (38.8) 63 (11.1) 124 (21.8) 51 (9.0) 321 (56.4) 469 (82.4) 452 (79.4)
Hispanic or Latina†† 643 (40.0) 275 (42.8) 49 (7.6) 122 (19.0) 61 (9.5) 396 (61.6) 532 (82.7) 481 (74.8)
White, non-Hispanic 180 (11.2) 81 (45.0) 25 (13.9) 39 (21.7) 13 (7.2) 98 (54.4) 150 (83.3) 148 (82.2)
Multiple, non-Hispanic 124 (7.7) 44 (35.5) 8 (6.5) 39 (31.5) 9 (7.3) 60 (48.4) 105 (84.7) 107 (86.3)
Other,§§ non-Hispanic 89 (5.5) 15 (16.9) 6 (6.7) 13 (14.6) 6 (6.7) 60 (67.4) 66 (74.2) 61 (68.5)
Gender identity¶¶
Woman 509 (31.7) 199 (39.1) 57 (11.2) 118 (23.1) 37 (7.3) 287 (56.4) 431 (84.7) 407 (80.0)
Man 6 (0.4) —*** 5 (83.3)
Transgender woman 1,404 (87.3) 558 (39.7) 131 (9.3) 295 (21.0) 126 (9.0) 817 (58.2) 1,144 (81.5) 1,084 (77.2)
Transgender man 11 (0.7) 7 (63.6) 9 (81.8) 6 (54.6)
A gender not listed here 94 (5.9) 40 (42.6) 12 (12.8) 24 (25.5) 7 (7.5) 46 (48.9) 74 (78.7) 64 (68.1)
Currently has health insurance
Yes 1,337 (83.2) 512 (38.3) 120 (9.0) 281 (21.0) 104 (7.8) 794 (59.4) 1,178 (88.1) 1,127 (84.3)
No 270 (16.8) 124 (45.9) 32 (11.9) 56 (20.7) 36 (13.3) 142 (52.6) 146 (54.1) 124 (45.9)
Unmet need for health care during the past 12 months
Yes 323 (20.1) 186 (57.6) 37 (11.5) 97 (30.0) 36 (11.2) 147 (45.5) 238 (73.7) 224 (69.4)
No 1,285 (79.9) 451 (35.1) 115 (9.0) 241 (18.8) 104 (8.1) 789 (61.4) 1,087 (84.6) 1,027 (79.9)
Self-reported HIV status†††
HIV–positive 615 (38.3) 229 (37.2) 60 (9.8) 139 (22.6) 50 (8.1) 350 (56.9) 546 (88.8) 537 (87.3)
HIV–negative or unknown 991 (61.6) 407 (41.1) 92 (9.3) 199 (20.1) 89 (9.0) 585 (59.0) 778 (78.5) 714 (72.1)
Education
Less than high school 347 (21.6) 168 (48.4) 35 (10.1) 75 (21.6) 33 (9.5) 192 (55.3) 283 (81.6) 268 (77.2)
High school diploma or equivalent 596 (37.1) 247 (41.4) 64 (10.7) 136 (22.8) 61 (10.2) 326 (54.7) 480 (80.5) 447 (75.0)
Some college or technical degree 486 (30.2) 181 (37.2) 40 (8.2) 105 (21.6) 33 (6.8) 290 (59.7) 416 (85.6) 395 (81.3)
College degree or more 177 (11.0) 39 (22.0) 13 (7.3) 21 (11.9) 12 (6.8) 128 (72.3) 144 (81.4) 140 (79.1)
Annual household income, USD
40,000–74,999 173 (10.8) 25 (14.5) 9 (5.2) 13 (7.5) 145 (83.8) 145 (81.8) 140 (80.9)
20,000–39,999 274 (17.0) 78 (28.5) 22 (8.0) 42 (15.3) 20 (7.3) 186 (67.9) 228 (83.2) 218 (79.6)
10,000–19,999 435 (27.1) 155 (35.6) 29 (6.7) 83 (19.1) 30 (6.9) 274 (63.0) 372 (85.5) 358 (82.3)
≤9,999 711 (44.2) 373 (52.5) 94 (13.2) 201 (28.3) 76 (10.7) 324 (45.6) 571 (80.3) 523 (73.6)
Urban area
Atlanta, Georgia 132 (8.2) 55 (41.7) 12 (9.1) 37 (28.0) 18 (13.6) 62 (47.0) 88 (66.7) 87 (65.9)
Los Angeles, California 504 (31.3) 224 (44.4) 50 (9.9) 136 (27.0) 43 (8.5) 270 (53.6) 420 (83.3) 374 (74.2)
New Orleans, Louisiana 165 (10.3) 77 (46.7) 12 (7.0) 35 (21.2) 11 (6.7) 106 (64.2) 143 (86.7) 136 (82.4)
New York, New York 279 (17.4) 114 (40.9) 21 (7.5) 46 (16.5) 27 (9.7) 181 (64.9) 245 (87.8) 222 (79.6)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 220 (13.7) 61 (27.7) 13 (5.9) 35 (15.9) 19 (8.6) 151 (68.6) 174 (79.1) 200 (90.9)
San Francisco, California 198 (12.3) 77 (38.9) 39 (19.7) 37 (18.7) 15 (7.6) 80 (40.4) 179 (90.4) 160 (80.8)
Seattle, Washington 110 (6.8) 29 (26.4) 5 (4.6) 12 (10.9) 7 (6.4) 86 (78.2) 76 (69.1) 72 (65.5)
Total 1,608 (100) 637 (39.6) 152 (9.5) 338 (21.0) 140 (8.7) 936 (58.2) 1,325 (82.4) 1,251 (77.8)

Abbreviation: USD = U.S. dollars.
* Numbers might not sum to totals because of missing data.
Homelessness was defined as having lived on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car during the past 12 months.
§ Severe food insecurity was defined as not eating for a whole day because there wasn’t enough money for food at some point during the past 12 months.
Usual source of care was defined as having a place to go when sick or in need of health advice other than a hospital emergency department.
** Because of racial and ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence, recruitment was focused on Black or African American and Hispanic or Latina transgender women.
†† Hispanic or Latina transgender women might be of any race.
§§ Includes persons who indicated Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, or Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race.
¶¶ Participants were asked to report their current gender identities from the following response options: woman, man, transgender woman, transgender man, or a gender not listed here. All eligible participants reported a gender identity of “woman” or “transgender woman;” however, participants were able to select more than one response option. Gender identities are not mutually exclusive.
*** Dashes indicate suppression because of small cell size (<5).
††† Participants who reported having a previous positive HIV test result were defined as self-reported HIV–positive.

TABLE 2. HIV treatment among transgender women living with a positive HIV test result — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, seven U.S. urban areas,* 2019–2020
Characteristic No. of transgender women Viral suppression Current antiretroviral use
No. (%) aPR (95% CI) p-value No. (%) aPR (95% CI) p-value
Annual household income, USD
40,000–74,999 51 45 (88.2) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 0.043 48 (94.1) 1.06 (0.99–1.15) 0.107
20,000–39,999 94 83 (88.3) 1.18 (1.09–1.27) <0.001 88 (93.6) 1.07 (1.01–1.14) 0.023
10,000–19,999 177 129 (72.9) 0.96 (0.87–1.05) 0.365 165 (93.2) 1.08 (1.02–1.14) 0.012
≤9,999 290 209 (72.1) Ref 249 (85.9) Ref
Education
Less than high school 144 108 (75.0) Ref 130 (90.3) Ref
High school diploma or equivalent 236 171 (72.5) 1.02 (0.92–1.12) 0.735 210 (89.0) 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.967
Some college or technical degree 196 155 (79.1) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 0.127 177 (90.3) 1.02 (0.95–1.08) 0.606
College degree or more 39 33 (84.6) 1.18 (1.03–1.34) 0.013 34 (87.2) 0.98 (0.88–1.08) 0.661
Experienced homelessness§
Yes 265 179 (67.6) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.003 226 (85.3) 0.91 (0.88–0.96) <0.001
No 350 288 (82.3) Ref 325 (92.9) Ref
No. of nights homeless§
365 60 33 (55.0) 0.75 (0.58–0.96) 0.025 47 (78.3) 0.84 (0.76–0.93) 0.001
30–364 139 97 (69.8) 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.048 119 (85.6) 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 0.011
<30 50 39 (78.0) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 0.804 47 (94.0) 0.99 (0.91–1.08) 0.799
None 350 288 (82.3) Ref 325 (92.9) Ref
Severe food insecurity
Yes 229 150 (65.5) 0.84 (0.76–0.92) <0.001 193 (84.3) 0.92 (0.87–0.96) 0.001
No 386 317 (82.1) Ref 328 (92.7) Ref
Currently has health insurance
Yes 560 435 (77.7) 1.14 (0.96–1.35) 0.133 507 (90.5) 1.16 (1.03–1.30) 0.016
No 54 32 (59.3) Ref 43 (79.6) Ref
Unmet need for health care during the past 12 months
Yes 90 58 (64.4) 0.89 (0.81–0.99) 0.027 74 (82.2) 0.90 (0.84–0.97) 0.008
No 525 409 (77.9) Ref 477 (90.9) Ref
Has usual source of care**
Yes 546 420 (76.9) 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 0.323 496 (90.8) 1.16 (1.03–1.32) 0.015
No 69 47 (68.1) Ref 55 (79.7) Ref
Comfort with a health care provider††
Yes 537 423 (78.8) 1.17 (1.04–1.32) 0.007 490 (91.2) 1.16 (1.05–1.29) 0.004
No 78 44 (56.4) Ref 61 (78.2) Ref
Total 615 467 (75.9) 551 (89.6)

Abbreviations: aPR = adjusted prevalence ratio; Ref = referent group; USD = U.S. dollars.
* The seven urban areas include Atlanta, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington.
Adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, city, and network size and clustered on urban areas and recruitment chains.
§ Homelessness was defined as having lived on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car during the past 12 months.
Severe food insecurity was defined as not eating for a whole day because there was not enough money for food at some point during the past 12 months.
** Usual source of care was defined as having a place to go when sick or in need of health advice other than a hospital emergency department.
†† Comfort with a health care provider was defined as having a health care provider with whom the participant is comfortable discussing gender-related health issues.

TABLE 3. HIV prevention services among transgender women without known HIV infection — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, seven U.S. urban areas,* 2019–2020
Characteristic No. of transgender women HIV test in the past 12 months PrEP use in the past 12 months
No. (%) aPR (95% CI) p-value No. (%) aPR (95% CI) p-value
Annual household income, USD
40,000–74,999 122 93 (76.2) 0.93 (0.85–1.01) 0.099 23 (18.8) 0.73 (0.53–0.99) 0.043
20,000–39,999 180 136 (75.6) 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 0.022 55 (30.6) 1.09 (0.90–1.32) 0.377
10,000–19,999 258 214 (82.9) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.640 96 (37.2) 1.45 (1.22–1.74) <0.001
≤9,999 421 358 (85.0) Ref 113 (26.8) Ref
Education
Less than high school 203 173 (85.2) Ref 51 (25.1) Ref
High school diploma or equivalent 360 283 (78.6) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.067 110 (30.6) 1.26 (1.02–1.56) 0.033
Some college or technical degree 290 244 (84.1) 1.00 (0.94–1.07) 0.944 91 (31.4) 1.27 (0.97–1.66) 0.087
College degree or more 138 106 (76.8) 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 0.379 36 (26.1) 1.06 (0.81–1.40) 0.662
Experienced homelessness§
Yes 406 349 (86.0) 1.10 (0.99–1.21) 0.076 126 (31.0) 1.08 (0.93–1.25) 0.332
No 586 458 (78.2) Ref 162 (27.6) Ref
No. of nights homeless§
365 92 73 (79.3) 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 0.663 24 (26.1) 0.98 (0.70–1.38) 0.899
30–364 199 176 (88.4) 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 0.059 62 (31.2) 1.05 (0.84–1.32) 0.654
<30 90 78 (86.7) 1.10 (0.99–1.21) 0.073 29 (32.2) 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 0.525
None 586 458 (78.2) Ref 162 (27.6) Ref
Severe food insecurity
Yes 408 342 (83.8) 1.02 (0.96–1.10) 0.495 137 (33.6) 1.23 (1.03–1.47) 0.024
No 582 463 (79.5) Ref 149 (25.6) Ref
Currently has health insurance
Yes 777 638 (82.1) 1.06 (0.98–1.16) 0.155 240 (30.9) 1.54 (1.26–1.88) <0.001
No 216 170 (78.7) Ref 48 (22.2) Ref
Unmet need for health care during the past 12 months
Yes 233 190 (81.6) 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 0.792 60 (25.7) 0.82 (0.68–1.00) 0.050
No 760 618 (81.3) Ref 228 (30.0) Ref
Has usual source of care**
Yes 779 650 (83.4) 1.16 (1.08–1.23) <0.001 261 (33.5) 2.54 (1.86–3.45) <0.001
No 210 154 (73.3) Ref 26 (12.4)
Comfort with a health care provider††
Yes 714 601 (84.2) 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 0.004 240 (33.6) 1.79 (1.43–2.24) <0.001
No 274 206 (75.2) Ref 48 (17.5) Ref
Total 991 786 (82.3) 288 (29.0)

Abbreviations: aPR = adjusted prevalence ratio; PrEP = preexposure prophylaxis; Ref = referent group; USD = U.S. dollars.
* The seven urban areas include Atlanta, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington.
Adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, city, and network size and clustered on urban areas and recruitment chains.
§ Homelessness was defined as having lived on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car during the past 12 months.
Severe food insecurity was defined as not eating for a whole day because there was not enough money for food at some point during the past 12 months.
** Usual source of care was defined as having a place to go when sick or in need of health advice other than a hospital emergency department.
†† Comfort with a health care provider was defined as having a health care provider with whom the participant is comfortable discussing gender-related health issues.

Suggested citation for this article: Lee K, Trujillo L, Olansky E, et al. Factors Associated with Use of HIV Prevention and Health Care Among Transgender Women — Seven Urban Areas, 2019–2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:673–679. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7120a1external icon.


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