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Although in 2022, excess mortality was slightly lower than in 2021 and 2020, it was significantly higher than in years with severe flu waves (e.g. 2015 and 2018). No excess mortality occurred in the first three months of 2022, but this changed from end of March onwards, with excess deaths in almost every week as of then. A flu epidemic began in mid-March which lasted for 13 weeks, followed by another flu epidemic as of mid-December. COVID-19 continued to occur as well. In 2020 and 2021, excess mortality largely coincided with COVID-19 mortality. There was no flu epidemic in those years.

Excess mortality
2015 5.394
2016 0.954
2017 1.673
2018 2.478
2019 -1.670
2020 15.276
2021 16.085
2022* 14.445
*Provisional figures

Up through September, COVID-19 mortality lower than excess mortality

Causes of death are known for all deaths which were registered up through September 2022 <link>. They included 6,477 deaths due to COVID-19, slightly less than the excess mortality in that period (7.7 thousand). In 2021 and 2020, COVID-19 mortality exceeded excess mortality. Across the entire pandemic, COVID-19 mortality is higher than excess mortality.

Excess mortality and COVID-19 mortality
2020 7.898 7.378 10.779 9.394
2021 6.147 9.938 12.275 7.333
2022* 7.749 6.696 6.477
*Provisional figures

Excess mortality in all age groups

In 2022, there were more deaths than expected in all age groups. Excess mortality was lowest among 50 to 64-year-olds (7 percent) and highest among people under the age of 50 (13 percent). Relative to 2021, excess mortality was lower in the three age groups between 50 and 89 years, but higher in both the youngest and the oldest group.

Excess mortality by age
0-49 yrs 2022* 4.946 0.645
0-49 yrs 2021 5.061 0.489
0-49 yrs 2020 5.115 0.475
50-64 yrs 2022* 15.240 1.096
50-64 yrs 2021 15.443 1.670
50-64 yrs 2020 15.609 0.489
65-79 yrs 2022* 47.476 5.448
65-79 yrs 2021 47.019 6.569
65-79 yrs 2020 45.842 5.419
80-89 yrs 2022* 53.830 3.931
80-89 yrs 2021 53.447 5.083
80-89 yrs 2020 53.075 6.059
90 yrs and over 2022* 34.001 3.325
90 yrs and over 2021 33.917 2.274
90 yrs and over 2020 33.760 2.835
*Provisional figures

Excess mortality up among women in particular

Slightly more women than men died last year, similar to the pre-pandemic situation. Among women, mortality was up by 11 percent; among men, by 8 percent. Conversely, male deaths outnumbered female deaths in 2021. In 2020, approximately the same number of men died as women.

More excess deaths among long-term care recipients

In 2022, slightly over 65 thousand people died who were receiving care under the Long-term Care Act (Wlz), such as residents of nursing homes or institutions for the disabled. It was 7.4 thousand more than expected and represented 13 percent excess mortality. Among the rest of the population, excess mortality stood at 6 percent, lower than among the long-term care recipients. There were 104 thousand deaths, 7 thousand more than expected. The group receiving long-term care includes proportionally more elderly and more women than the rest of the population.
Year on year, excess mortality was up among long-term care recipients, but down among the rest of the population.

Relative excess mortality, use of long-term care
2020 14.0 7.5
2021 10.2 10.4
2022* 12.7 7.2
*Provisional figures

Excess mortality relatively highest in Flevoland, Drenthe and Hollands-Noorden

Excess mortality varies per GGD region. Especially in Flevoland (17 percent), Drenthe (13 percent) and Hollands-Noorden (13 percent), excess mortality was higher than expected. Excess mortality was lowest in Gooi en Vechtstreek (1 percent), South Limburg (5 percent) and Amsterdam (6 percent).
Flevoland also had relatively high excess mortality in 2021 (20 percent). At 11 percent, Drenthe actually had lower excess mortality that year. Hollands-Noorden had roughly the same excess mortality in both years. In 2021, excess mortality was also recorded in GGD regions around the provinces of Zeeland and Limburg.

Excess mortality by GGD region, 2022*
GGD Groningen 7.2 7.8 0.4
GGD Drenthe 13.1 10.6 5.6
GGD IJsselland 11.4 8.5 10.0
GGD Regio Twente 9.4 11.9 10.5
GGD Noord- en Oost-Gelderland 12.4 10.0 10.3
Veiligheids- en Gezondheidsregio Gelderland-Midden 11.2 12.0 9.8
GGD Gelderland-Zuid 12.0 13.0 12.4
GGD Flevoland 16.9 20.3 13.0
GGD Regio Utrecht 10.1 9.3 9.1
GGD Hollands-Noorden 12.7 12.5 7.9
GGD Kennemerland 7.4 6.4 7.0
GGD Amsterdam 5.6 6.4 5.8
GGD Gooi en Vechtstreek 1.3 8.4 8.2
GGD Hollands-Midden 10.7 8.8 10.2
GGD Rotterdam-Rijnmond 6.1 7.9 13.8
Dienst Gezondheid & Jeugd ZHZ 6.7 13.4 12.0
GGD Zeeland 8.3 16.4 2.8
GGD West-Brabant 8.5 9.9 10.0
GGD Hart voor Brabant 12.1 11.1 19.3
GGD Brabant-Zuidoost 7.9 9.2 14.2
GGD Limburg-Noord 9.0 14.6 12.6
GGD Zuid-Limburg 4.5 14.1 13.2
GGD Haaglanden 9.0 7.8 8.3
GGD Fryslân 9.7 9.7 1.1
GGD Zaanstreek/Waterland 10.4 12.8 14.1
*Provisional figures

Slight increase in life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth rose again in 2022, ending at 80.1 years for men and 83.1 years for women. Relative to 2021, this added 5 months to male and 1 month to female life expectancy. Despite this increase, male life expectancy remained 4 months below the 2019 level and female life expectancy 5 months. On average, life expectancy tends to rise gradually from year to year. However, there was a slight decline during the coronavirus pandemic.

Period life expectancy at birth
1950 70.29 72.58
1951 70.24 72.75
1952 70.96 73.29
1953 70.41 72.98
1954 70.96 73.83
1955 70.94 74.08
1956 70.97 74.10
1957 71.38 74.58
1958 71.46 74.84
1959 71.24 75.16
1960 71.39 75.30
1961 71.45 75.74
1962 70.95 75.56
1963 71.02 75.77
1964 71.28 76.27
1965 71.11 76.14
1966 71.03 76.11
1967 71.17 76.57
1968 70.92 76.44
1969 70.92 76.29
1970 70.81 76.50
1971 70.99 76.77
1972 70.81 76.79
1973 71.30 77.13
1974 71.61 77.61
1975 71.45 77.71
1976 71.53 77.92
1977 72.08 78.52
1978 71.95 78.50
1979 72.46 78.93
1980 72.48 79.18
1981 72.71 79.32
1982 72.73 79.41
1983 72.93 79.56
1984 72.96 79.68
1985 73.08 79.66
1986 73.09 79.61
1987 73.51 80.06
1988 73.68 80.24
1989 73.66 79.92
1990 73.84 80.11
1991 74.05 80.15
1992 74.30 80.28
1993 73.98 80.00
1994 74.58 80.31
1995 74.60 80.36
1996 74.66 80.35
1997 75.16 80.55
1998 75.19 80.69
1999 75.34 80.45
2000 75.54 80.58
2001 75.80 80.71
2002 75.99 80.69
2003 76.24 80.93
2004 76.87 81.44
2005 77.19 81.60
2006 77.63 81.89
2007 78.01 82.31
2008 78.32 82.28
2009 78.53 82.65
2010 78.77 82.72
2011 79.18 82.85
2012 79.14 82.82
2013 79.41 83.04
2014 79.87 83.29
2015 79.73 83.13
2016 79.88 83.13
2017 80.06 83.32
2018 80.16 83.33
2019 80.46 83.56
2020 79.67 83.08
2021 79.68 82.99
2022* 80.11 83.11
*Provisional figures

‘Period life expectancy’ was developed to make statements about how long people live based on current data. It indicates how old people become on average if the mortality probability by age of that year were to apply throughout their lives. Mortality probabilities change every year; consequently, period life expectancy can be interpreted primarily as a summary measure of mortality in a given year.

Source of original article: Statistics Netherlands (CBS) (www.cbs.nl).
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